This graph shows that the probability of observing a value of lambda equal to or greater than the measured value (dashed vertical line) is very small. The three lines represent the anthropically predicted probability density distribution as a function of R, the ratio of the cosmological constant in another part of the multiverse to that in our Universe in Starkman and Trotta’s MANO scheme. T controls the cosmic time when intelligent life emerges, with T=1 representing our Universe. Credit: American Physical Society. “The significance of our work is to offer a concrete example of how anthropic methods of reasoning can be used to reach conclusions contradictory to those usually arrived at,” Starkman told PhysOrg.com. “This suggests to us that anthropic explanations of fundamental questions should be treated very cautiously.”According to the Anthropic Principle, the fact that we are here to observe the universe explains why the laws of nature are what they are. Some scientists point to a great deal of coincidences to support this idea: the perfect strength and relation of the four forces; the many components producing carbon-based life; and the energy density of the universe driving its expansion (aka “lambda”). Add all this up, proponents argue, and it’s pretty unlikely that you should be here today. Not to mention that the Anthropic Principle seems to fit nicely with many popular theories, such as string theory and the multiverse.Prior to Starkman and Trotta, people have taken issue with anthropic reasoning, although most of these arguments have been qualitative (with exception of a few very recent studies). For instance, explaining that things are what they are because of the way things are, doesn’t seem to get us anywhere. In addition, anthropic reasoning narcisstically ignores the possibility of non-carbon-based life. And why must the universe have been created to support life—why not see it as humans adapting to the universe, since natural selection decides which types of life are the best survivors? “The less we rely on anthropic reasoning, the better,” is Starkman’s opinion. “But on the other hand, in using anthropic reasoning, we might, with great caution, agree on what makes life absolutely impossible. However, we should be entirely skeptical of arguments about what life makes more probable.”In their study, Starkman and Trotta attempt to use anthropic reasoning to explain the value of the cosmological constant, which controls the universe’s expansion rate. What is the probability that an observer makes a measurement of this value in a given universe? they ask. First, one must find the number of observers in that universe (automatically eliminating those universes incompatible with intelligent life). Then one must figure out how many measurements each onecould make. Citation: Cosmologists expose flaws in anthropic reasoning (2006, November 28) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-11-cosmologists-expose-flaws-anthropic.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Many scientists never liked it anyway, and now Glenn Starkman from Oxford/Case Western and Roberto Trotta from Oxford show that too many details—and too many unknowns—mean that anthropic reasoning gives inconsistent values of the cosmological constant, some that are far from current estimates. In their recent paper, “Why Anthropic Reasoning Cannot Predict Lambda” (Physical Review Letters), Starkman and Trotta find that different ways of defining the probability of observers in different universes leads to vastly different predictions of the cosmological constant. The question of the paper, then, is how to determine the number of observers in a universe and the number of measurements they could make—a number that cannot be measured directly, but which one must try to deduce despite the large number of unknown contributing factors. There are so many factors (e.g. number density of galaxies, baryons in halos, holographic arguments), in fact, that Starkman and Trotta argue that one’s prediction of the cosmological constant with anthropic reasoning depends “enormously” on the different ways of weighting all the factors. Because no single weighting scheme provides a fundamental advantage over any others, they argue, this lack of definition disqualifies anthropic reasoning. To demonstrate, Starkman and Trotta introduce a new weighting factor called the “maximum number of allowed observations” (MANO) in a universe. “This maximum number is the product of two factors—the number of observers and the maximum number of observations that each observer can make,” the scientists write in their study.Starkman and Trotta limit the number of observations per observer by calculating the maximum number of thermodynamic processes a living thing could perform in a lifetime under ideal conditions. Based on this energy-consuming picture, the scientists then limit the number of observers so that each can utilize all the energy in its surroundings without having to share (called the “rare observer limit”). They explain that if the number of observers increased, the energy per observer would decrease due to competition, waste, warfare, and thus wasted energy. Of course, the real outcome of overpopulation is unpredictable—but, the paper argues, this inability to predict the results of higher observer density further compromises the abilities of anthropic reasoning. Finally, the result which this anthropic reasoning gives: Starkman and Trotta measure that the probability of the anthropically predicted lambda being greater than or equal to the currently observed value (about 0.7) is one in 100,000. This result differs dramatically from the anthropic predictions proposed by Steven Weinberg, in predictions from 1989 (in his seminal paper on anthropic reasoning), to the present. Weinberg predicted a result larger than (though more similar to) current observations. Still other approaches have predicted much larger values.Starkman and Trotta explain that at least two assumptions of anthropic reasoning contribute to its flawed results. At its most basic level, anthropic reasoning uses the concept of probability to place limits on lambda. Perhaps, though, probability cannot apply to the entire universe, as the universe is not a lab where repeatable experiments are performed. Secondly, as the scientists write, anthropic reasoning depends heavily “on poorly understood microphysical processes involved in the evolution of life, especially of conscious beings interested in making observations of the fundamental constants.” Even expert biologists can hardly be sure of the various intelligence levels of animals on this planet. As a far-fetched illustration, we can’t eliminate the possibility that ants (or more aptly, aliens) will one day make their own measurements of the cosmological constant, can we?However, just because scientists have not found a weighting factor that would give an accurate prediction of lambda, might not rule out the possibility that a “correct” weighting factor could, in principle, exist. Starkman and Trotta have their doubts, though, not only on this possibility, but also on how valuable knowing the factor would be.“I think that, if such a possibility exists, then it has to be explored from the point of view of probability theory as logic, i.e. starting from fundamental reasoning principles and working our way upward toward a physical prediction,” said Trotta. “As our work demonstrates, attacking the problem from the other end will only give us answers that depend completely on the assumptions we put into our calculations. As such, those answers would probably have little relation with the physical reality and origin of our Universe.”“If there is a correct weighting factor (and I doubt that there is) I think we’re unlikely to be able to know what it is for such a very long time that we’d be better off trying to actually explain the universe we see,” said Starkman, “rather than arguing that it is the way it is so that we could be here to observe it.”Citation: Starkman, Glenn D., and Trotta, Roberto. “Why Anthropic Reasoning Cannot Predict Lambda.” Physical Review Letters 97, 201301 (2006).By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.comReprinted figure with permission from Starkman, Glenn D., and Roberto, Trotta. Physical Review Letters 97, 201301 (2006). Copyright 2006 by the American Physical Society. Readers may view, browse, and/or download material for temporary copying purposes only, provided these uses are for noncommercial personal purposes. Except as provided by law, this material may not be further reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, adapted, performed, displayed, published, or sold in whole or part, without prior written permission from the publisher.
Month: August 2019
Cosmologists expose flaws in anthropic reasoning
Something old something new Evolution and the structural divergence of duplicate genes
The exon-intron structures of six pairs of representative sibling paralogs and the domain organization of their proteins, showing the three types of underlying mechanisms for structural divergences. Exons that have experienced exon/intron gain/loss (A-C), exonization/pseudoexonization (B-F), and insertion/deletion (B and C) events are highlighted with pink; those without structural difference are in gray. Small white bars in B and C depict the indels that have resulted from insertion/deletion events. Copyright © PNAS, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109047109 Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Gene duplications are arguably the driving force of organismal evolution – and if they survive, such duplicate genes will diverge in both regulatory and coding genomic regions. Coding divergences, in turn, can be caused by nucleotide substitutions or exon-intron structural changes. (Exons are DNA bases that are transcribed into mRNA and eventually code for amino acids in proteins. Introns are DNA bases found between exons, but which are not transcribed.) Scientists have had limited knowledge in the latter case until recently, when researchers at the Institute of Botany of the Chinese Academy of Sciences investigated structural divergences during the evolution of duplicate and nonduplicate genes. They found that such structural divergences are very common in duplicate gene evolution, and have resulted from three primary causes – exon/intron gain/loss, exonization/pseudoexonization (where an intronic or intergenic sequence becomes exonic, or vice versa), and insertion/deletion – each contributing differently to structural divergence. The scientists concluded that structural divergences play a more important role in the evolution of duplicate genes than nonduplicate genes. During alignment, the team also took into consideration alternative splicing to ensure that the observed differences in exon-intron structure were not the artifact caused by comparisons of transcription forms with different splicing choices. In other words, among the multiple transcription forms of the two paralogs, only those with the same splicing choices and the highest similarity were considered. “This is also a conservative strategy that further minimized the potential errors in gene annotation.” Kong adds.Finally, says Kong, to calculate the genetic distances between genes, they only used the regions for which homology can be determined with confidence. “When structural changes have caused shifts in reading frame,” Kong points out, “corresponding regions were no longer homologous – especially when the corresponding amino acids were considered) and thus were excluded from further analyses. This was done manually for each of the investigated gene pairs.”Kong also discussed the team’s conclusion that structural divergences have played a more important role during the evolution of duplicate than nonduplicate genes. “Many people believe that duplicate genes tend to evolve more rapidly than nonduplicate genes because of functional redundancy,” he observes. “However, in the past few decades, attention has been paid exclusively to nucleotide substitutions, possibly because they are easy to detect and investigate. Some people even believe that point mutation, especially those that can lead to replacements of amino acids with distinct biochemical properties, play overwhelming roles in gene evolution.”Kong also points out that there are still scattered studies showing that changes in exon-intron structure have occurred and contributed to the generation of functionally distinct paralogs and orthologs (genes in different species that evolved from a common ancestral gene by speciation). “Actually, in many recent studies – especially those that focus on the evolution of multigene families – there are plenty of cases in which duplicate genes show obvious differences in exon-intron structure. This suggests that structural divergence have been widespread and important in gene evolution. Unfortunately, up until now, an extensive investigation of the prevalence, consequences and underlying mechanisms of structural divergence has been lacking.”In other words, the group’s study is the first to deal with the general patterns of structural divergence in gene evolution. “The conclusion that structural divergence has played a more important role during the evolution of duplicate than nonduplicate genes will help understand why gene duplication has contributed greatly to the acquisition of novel physiological and morphological characters. Clearly, duplication and subsequent divergence of genes have led to the increase of the genetic and phenotypic diversity of life.”In Kong’s opinion, their work will have at least three impacts. “Firstly, it highlights the importance of structural divergence in gene evolution, and may induce more broad and thorough studies on the other properties of structural divergence,” he explains. “This will help understand more about the general patterns of gene evolution.”Secondly, he continues, it will help understand the possible defects or even errors of studies in which only EST, CDS or protein sequences were compared. “As I wrote in our paper,” he notes, “‘in the future, when two or more genes are compared, special attention should be paid to their genomic sequences. Without the knowledge of exon-intron organization, it is impossible to guarantee the reliability of the alignments of genes if structural divergences, especially those that can cause shifts of reading frame, have occurred.’”Lastly, Kong says that their findings will stimulate reconsideration of some definitions now being widely used. “During the study, we feel that the differences or boundaries between many biological terms or concepts – such as alternative splicing and exonization/pseudoexonization, and exon/intron gain/loss and exon shuffling – are not very clear. We discussed this briefly in the paper, but more efforts are needed to clarify these issues.”In terms of next steps in their research, Kong says that the team is pursuing in two directions. “One is to investigate the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of structural divergence in representative animals, such as humans and fruit flies, and yeasts to see whether structural divergence play equally important roles in these eukaryotic lineages. From our preliminary data, we’re rather certain that this is not always the case.”Their other focus is to investigate many other properties of structural divergence. “For example,” Kong adds, “at present we have neither calculated the occurrence rates of each mechanism for structural divergence, nor have we known whether and to what extent natural selection has contributed to the process. Also, in my lab, we focus a bit more on the genetic and molecular basis for morphological evolution. We’ve found that duplication and diversification of a few regulatory genes – mostly transcription factor genes – are responsible for the alterations in floral characters. We’re also carrying out functional studies to see how changes in exon-intron structure have contributed to phenotypic evolution.”Kong adds that their research is extremely laborious and time-consuming, because most steps have to be performed manually. “It would be great if automatic pipelines could be developed to speed up the process. There’s some software that accomplishes this, but for many reasons, the quality of the work is not always satisfactory. We’re currently collaborating with developers to improve the quality and speed of such applications.”Beyond their own research in molecular evolution, genomics, and evolutionary developmental biology, Kong concludes, the team’s research findings may benefit any other areas that have connections with these fields. Personalising the use of chemotherapy in breast cancer treatment The research, led by Professor Hongzhi Kong and Assistant Professor Guixia Xu in the Institute of Botany’s State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, faced three main challenges in investigating the occurrence, importance and underlying mechanisms of structural divergences during the evolution of duplicate and nonduplicate genes. “The first was to identify suitable duplicate genes for comparison,” Kong told PhysOrg.com. “Not all duplicate genes, albeit abundant, could be used for this purpose – if two genes have diverged too much, it would be difficult or even impossible to make a reliable comparison between them. The second,” Kong continues, “was to generate a reasonable alignment for each gene pair based upon which the underlying mechanisms for structural divergence were determined. The third was to calculate the genetic distance between genes, especially when changes in exon-intron structure have caused shifts in reading frame.” Kong described the ways in which the team addressed these issues. “To identify suitable duplicate genes for this study, we only considered the most closely related duplicate genes – that is, sibling paralogs – simply because their evolutionary histories were relatively short and deducible. However, the problem with this strategy is that our estimates of structural divergence were somehow conservative. Nevertheless, because differences in exon-intron structure were widespread even between sibling paralogs, our results highlighted the prevalence and importance of structural divergence during duplicate gene evolution.“To determine the underlying mechanisms for structural divergence, it is crucial to generate a reliable alignment for each paired sibling paralogs. “However,” Kong explains, “because such work relied heavily on the annotated gene structures, we first checked and evaluated the quality of gene annotation. We found that in plants, Arabidopsis and rice were the two species whose genomes have been most extensively and carefully annotated. We therefore focused exclusively on these species at this stage. We also found that in both Arabidopsis and rice, the annotations of some genes were likely better than others, simply because they play key roles in plant development and have been the focuses of functional studies. For this reason, and because of time and labor limits, we concentrated on seven well-known gene families.” More information: Divergence of duplicate genes in exon–intron structure. Published online before print January 9, 2012, PNAS January 24, 2012 vol. 109 no. 4 1187-1192, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1109047109 Copyright 2012 PhysOrg.com. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com. Citation: Something old, something new: Evolution and the structural divergence of duplicate genes (2012, January 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-evolution-divergence-duplicate-genes.html
Rutgers team has ring prototype for touch authentication
The prototype ring and its usage for transmitting short messages from the ring to a touchpad. Image credit: Tam Vu Touchscreens are already designed to detect voltage changes from fingers touching and moving across the screen. They pick up those spikes, and software on the phone would read them as password-like data. Full details of their proposed approach can be seen in their research paper, “Distinguishing Users with Capacitive Touch Communication,” by Tam Vu, Akash Baid, Simon Gao, Marco Gruteser, Richard Howard, Janne Lindqvist, Predrag Spasojevic, and Jeffrey Walling. “We explore a novel form of wireless communication in which a touch panel acts as a receiver and a small ring-like device worn by the user serves as the transmitter.”Project leader Marco Gruteser said the team hopes to commercialize the device in two years. Their homework ahead includes coming up with a miniaturized version of the device, as the one they have now is too “clunky.” Also, the ring can transmit only a few bits of data per second quickly and accurately. “Our experiments show that this is feasible even with an off-the-shelf touchscreen system, albeit at very low bitrates,” the authors wrote. The equivalent of a pin code takes around two seconds for the ring to transmit, but Gruteser said that could be speeded up by modifying touchscreen firmware in phones. “We believe that signiﬁcantly higher data rates could be achieved by designing receiver capabilities into touch screens,” the authors wrote.When the device is ready for prime time, their ring approach can be counted among the numerous attempts researchers are now making to provide easy but reliable authentication for mobile users. In expanding on that approach, as one computer scientist has suggested, research could lead to a time where numerous electronic devices are developed that “know” their users via touch and can adapt to preferences and offer personalized information.As the authors point out, examples of “who you are” today include iris recognition, face recognition and voice recognition, all of which are being prototyped and tested on mobile devices. With the advent of well known spooﬁng mechanisms, though, there is more work ahead. The authors point out that even novel approaches such as air gesture based authentication which uses accelerometer sensors of a mobile device are easily visible to an adversary and can be socially awkward.A finger-swipe is something people are already doing, said Gruteser. The appeal of the approach is that so many devices use swiping already, whereas few commercial devices have retina-readers or finger-scanners. WINLAB (Wireless Information Network Laboratory) at Rutgers, described as a cooperative industry-university research center, focuses on new ideas for the mobile Internet. Explore further © 2012 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: www.winlab.rutgers.edu/~grutes … /papers/tammob12.pdfvia Technology Review ShakeID tracks touch action in multi-user display (Phys.org)—What about using the same mobile device touchscreens used every day for direct authentication? What if your touch alone identifies you by code from the ring on your finger? A team from the WINLAB at Rutgers University has turned the what-ifs into a device that makes use of capacitive touchscreens on phones and tablets to confirm the user’s identity. The device can provide an additional layer of protection alongside passwords. The device can send a few bits of data representing a password from a special battery powered ring (with flash memory) on the finger. The data is sent as tiny voltage bursts through the wearer’s skin for phone-screen capture. Citation: Rutgers team has ring prototype for touch authentication (2012, August 31) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-08-rutgers-team-prototype-authentication.html
Interruptible 3D printing method wins Gehry prize w Video
Robot arm at MIT will weave its own web (w/ Video) The prize is given to those who can demonstrate exceptional thesis projects. The couple won for their method of 3-D printing that allows the user to make changes to the design in progress.In 3-D printing an object is created by laying down successive layers of material that can render finished objects.3-D Printers make objects in three dimensions, layer by layer, which may be only microns thick. The model that is destined for replication has usually been fully resolved. The Phantom Geometry method allows the user, in contrast, to print outside the specifications of a given 3-D mode. Fundamentally the Phantom Geometry method is designed to create a physical model of streaming information. Using advanced robotic arms, the von Hasseln team proceeded to manipulate the model as it was being printed. According to their idea, as a printed product emerges, the designer can make alternations to the design in-progress, and in so doing change the downstream architecture of the printed product.Their system has a UV light projector, a special photo-sensitive resin, and controlled robotic arms from SCI-Arc’s Robot House. One robotic arm supports a projector at a stable height, while a second holds a vat of resin. The second arm moves the vat into the projector’s light beam of light. The designer tells the computer where and when to expose that vat to the projector’s rays. The designer is free to interrupt the process and change the model while it is being printed. As a result, one can work with a fabrication system that relies on real-time feed-back and feed-forward mechanisms, they said, and is therefore “interruptible and corruptible at any time.”As they explain in their own words, “The system uses UV light from a modified DLP projector to continuously and selectively cure photo initiated resin within a shallow vat system we developed for the project. The cured part is simultaneously and continually pulled away from the vat, allowing un-cured resin to flood in beneath it to be subsequently cured. The result is the material reification of streaming data that emerges along the motion path of the Staubli robot maneuvering the vat/projector apparatus.”SCI-Arc is an independent architecture school. The school’s Robot House is a cross between studio and shop, academy and industry, utilized as a research space for experimentation. Students have access to a multi-robot platform that includes six Stäubli robots, each with a full sphere of motion, operating in one flexible configuration, or in what the school calls a multi-robot work cell. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Explore further © 2012 Phys.org (Phys.org)—A husband and wife architecture team have managed to turn 3-D printing into something that is less rigidly planned and more on the fly and have won a prestigious award as a result. Liz and Kyle von Hasseln are winners of the inaugural Gehry Prize from the Southern California Institute of Architecture (Sci-Arc) in Los Angeles. The prize is named after architect Frank Gehry, who is known around the world for his architectural wonders including the Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain; the Walt Disney Concert Hall in downtown Los Angeles; and the Dancing House in Prague. Citation: Interruptible 3-D printing method wins Gehry prize (w/ Video) (2012, October 22) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-d-method-gehry-prize.html
Microsoft job postings hint at changes coming for Windows Blue
Citation: Microsoft job postings hint at changes coming for Windows Blue (2013, February 18) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-02-microsoft-job-hint-windows-blue.html Explore further Microsoft gives further peek at Windows 8 (Phys.org)—Postings on Microsoft’s Career web site appear to confirm widely spread rumors that Microsoft is planning to offer regular updates to Windows 8, similar to the way Apple updates its operating system, i.e. on a yearly basis. Code named Windows Blue, updates appear to be targeted at not just the internals’ of the operating system, but the user interface (UI) as well. © 2013 Phys.org In one job posting for an engineer, Microsoft reveals the company is looking for someone to join its Windows Core Experience Team, which the listing says will entail working on making improvements to the UI, including such fundamental aspects as the Start experience, the application lifecycle, how windowing works and overall personalization.Microsoft diverged dramatically from its traditional UI when it launched Windows 8, of course, a move that most industry insiders have attributed to a desire to meld the look and feel of all of the various platforms on which Windows appears—computers, smartphones, tablets, etc. Updates to the UI, while applying to its most basic components, are not expected to result in major changes to the user experience though—if Microsoft is working on that, users won’t likely see it till Windows 9 makes its debut.In another job posting, the company says its Excel Mobile Office team is looking for a development lead with a lot of experience to help implement something they call Windows Phone Blue—a likely code name for the development of applications to run on Windows smartphones to coincide with changes the company is making across its entire sweet of operating systems and the applications running on them. The idea is, apparently, to create a version of Excel that can run on a smartphone, but will still look like versions of Excel running on a computer or tablet.Up till now, Microsoft has followed a traditional pattern with its Windows operating system—they would create a major revision and then send out patches to fix known problems while working on the next major upgrade. But that was before smartphones and tablets and hybrids and all the rest. Now, it appears the company feels it needs to be not only more responsive, but to act proactively to tweak their product between major releases—a strategy that should allow them to keep their operating system looking fresh. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Simulations show likely amount of sea level rise in coastal cities around
Contrary to what might seem obvious, sea levels do not rise in a uniform manner—levels may rise more in parts of Asia, for example, than along the California coast. These differences are due to factors such as ocean currents and the location of melting ice. Thus, as the planet heats up and more ice melts, resulting in higher sea levels, some coastal areas will see higher levels than others. In this new effort, the researchers sought to predict how much rise individual coastal cities are likely to experience as global temperatures reach two landmarks—2 °C and 5 °C higher than pre-industrial levels.To make their estimations, the researchers ran approximately 24 computer simulations approximately 5000 times—the models accounted for such factors as temperature rise of the air and ocean, ocean currents and the impact of melting ice. The models offered results very similar to those previously made by other researchers regarding global sea rising amounts, but they also offered estimates locally, showing, for example, that many parts of South and South East Asia are likely to see higher rises than other parts of the world. They also showed that the more levels rise, the faster the rise becomes if the factors contributing to global warming are not changed.If things continue on their current path, the researchers suggest, global temperatures are likely to become 2 °C higher than pre-industrial levels by 2040 or 2050 and 5 °C higher by 2100. If these milestones are reached, the simulations suggest, the Earth would experience a global sea rise of approximately six inches by mid-century and two feet by the end of the century. If that happened, the models suggest the East Coast of the U.S. would experience a sea rise of a foot by mid-century and cities like Lagos, Manilla and Ho Chi Minh City would experience a rise as much as three feet by the end of the century; New York City could see a rise of more than three and a half feet. More information: Svetlana Jevrejeva et al. Coastal sea level rise with warming above 2 °C, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2016). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1605312113AbstractTwo degrees of global warming above the preindustrial level is widely suggested as an appropriate threshold beyond which climate change risks become unacceptably high. This “2 °C” threshold is likely to be reached between 2040 and 2050 for both Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 and 4.5. Resulting sea level rises will not be globally uniform, due to ocean dynamical processes and changes in gravity associated with water mass redistribution. Here we provide probabilistic sea level rise projections for the global coastline with warming above the 2 °C goal. By 2040, with a 2 °C warming under the RCP8.5 scenario, more than 90% of coastal areas will experience sea level rise exceeding the global estimate of 0.2 m, with up to 0.4 m expected along the Atlantic coast of North America and Norway. With a 5 °C rise by 2100, sea level will rise rapidly, reaching 0.9 m (median), and 80% of the coastline will exceed the global sea level rise at the 95th percentile upper limit of 1.8 m. Under RCP8.5, by 2100, New York may expect rises of 1.09 m, Guangzhou may expect rises of 0.91 m, and Lagos may expect rises of 0.90 m, with the 95th percentile upper limit of 2.24 m, 1.93 m, and 1.92 m, respectively. The coastal communities of rapidly expanding cities in the developing world, and vulnerable tropical coastal ecosystems, will have a very limited time after midcentury to adapt to sea level rises unprecedented since the dawn of the Bronze Age. (Phys.org)—An international team of researchers has run multiple global climate computer simulations multiple times and has used the simulation results to estimate the local impact of rising sea levels on coastal cities around the globe. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group outlines the first serious attempt to account for multiple factors in making predictions about sea level rise amounts around the world. Credit: Tiago Fioreze / Wikipedia Citation: Simulations show likely amount of sea level rise in coastal cities around the world (2016, November 8) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-11-simulations-amount-sea-coastal-cities.html © 2016 Phys.org New paper by prominent scientists suggests ocean levels will rise much faster than predicted Explore further Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
From Phulkari to Lassi to Makki di Roti and Sarson da Saag, the vibrancy of the land of the five rivers will be on full display as Delhi celebrates the culture and spirit of Punjab in a three-day Punjabi Mela organized by Delhi government’s Punjabi Academy.The cultural carnival will be unveiled at the Indira Gandhi National Centre for Arts on 12 April and will put on display every aspect of Punjabi life – from its rich food to its colorful dances to various forms of its arts – to give a glimpse of the rich cultural heritage of the people of the land. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The event also intends to exhibit and promote the dying ethnic traditions of Punjab through a setting of the traditional ‘mela’ of a Punjabi village where all cultural traditions meet and grow.All Punjabi instruments like the fast-slipping-into-oblivion ‘charkha’ or the spinning wheel, the art of knitting, popularly known as ‘Phulkari’, the making of ‘lassi’ and the playing of old musical instruments like ‘Been’, ‘Algoza’ and ‘Rabab’ will create an aura of a typical Punjabi Mela. Dotting the IGNCA grounds will be stalls in the traditional Punjabi bazaar pattern selling Punjabi Juttis, Phulkaris, Naale-Prandey and other goods. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixFor those who love the Punjabi cuisine there would also be the traditional Punjabi food including. Men from the order of the ‘Nihang Singhs’ will perform their popular martial art Gatka. ‘Punjab’s vibrant culture, its rich cuisine and soulful music, has always attracted people. It is full of love and life. Through this festival we not only want to highlight the culture of the state but also promote the dying traditions of the great land,’ said Rawail Singh, Secretary, Punjabi Academy.While the day will showcase the working arts, the evening will be take viewers to a nostalgic journey through the Punjabi culture with live performances by top singers and dancers. Performers of international fame are expected to participate in the three-day extravaganza where exquisite fusion of Bhangra-Giddha and modern dances would also be presented.
Extend full support to AAP Rajnath
Home Minister Rajnath Singh on Monday, asked the Delhi Police to extend full support to the Arvind Kejriwal-led government, as he reiterated Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s view that the states should be given every assistance, rising above party lines in keeping with the spirit of “cooperative federalism”.“I would like to maintain that a new party has got the mandate and a new government has been formed in Delhi. I expect you to extend full cooperation to this newly-formed government so that it can pave way for the city’s development,” Singh said at the 68th Raising Day parade of the Delhi Police on Monday. Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 crore“And I would also like to assure the new government that Delhi Police will extend full support in maintaining law and order in the city and will not let any anti-social elements disrupt the development work,” he said.He appreciated the force’s efforts for ensuring safety of women in the national Capital, saying that not just the people of Delhi, but even the Prime Minister gets worried whenever there is a crime against any woman. He added that the Centre has asked all state governments to constitute Investigative Units on crimes against women. Also Read – Man who cheated 20 women on matrimonial websites arrestedMeanwhile, speaking about the recent attacks on churches, Singh said that the Delhi Police Commissioner and other officials have taken strong action to prevent the repeat of such incidents. Different communities live here and small things become news, which affects the image of the Delhi Police.Moving on, Singh further said that the people from the North-eastern regions should not feel alienated in the national Capital. “I would like to say that if anybody practises discrimination against them, strict action would be taken,” he said. He also advised the Police to give protection to the lesser privileged and said that the force “should be sensitive to the right to livelihood of street vendors, rickshaw-pullers and traders and strive to win their blessings”. Stressing on the need for adopting modern technologies, Singh said that the new procedure for issuing the Police Clearance Certificate was a step in that direction. He said that the Delhi Police should take the lead to realise the Prime Minister’s dream of ‘SMART Police’ (S-Sensitive and Strict; M-Modern with Mobility; A-Alert and Accountable; R- Reliable and Responsive; T-Trained and Techno-savvy). He also lauded the Himmat app, launched a few weeks ago, terming it an “effective application to provide security to women” in the national Capital.He also mentioned the probe into the 1984 riot cases by the SIT, assuring that justice would surely be bestowed upon the victims and their families.Notably, the Delhi Police Commissioner BS Bassi had invited Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal and his Cabinet for the event, but nobody from the newly sworn-in AAP government attended the function. However, both the Home Minister and Bassi asked media persons not to “read too much” into the issue. “It is a matter of privilege. I am sure, he (Kejriwal) will attend tomorrow’s (Tuesday) ‘At Home’ function,” said Bassi.
CAG raps Arunachal for failing to implement midday meal scheme
The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) has criticised the Arunachal Pradesh education department for its failure in successful implementation of the Mid-Day Meal (MDM) scheme in the state.The Centre had launched the scheme in August 1995 to boost universalisation of primary education by increasing enrolment, retention and attendance and simultaneously improving nutritional status of primary schoolchildren.The CAG report, which was tabled in the state Assembly on Tuesday by Chief Minister Nabam Tuki, attributed inadequate financial management, short-lifting of food grain, delay in release of funds, inadequate infrastructural facilities and lack of monitoring as the reasons for failure of the scheme.The CAG highlighted that no household surveys were conducted to identify the total number of children enrolled at the primary stage and no attempts were made to encourage high-level of enrolment through publicity.The report stated that in 2010-11, against the Centre’s allocation of 6,687.66 MT of grains for primary and upper primary levels, the department lifted only 5,928.37 MT and during 2013-14, against an allocation of 6,625.01 MT, only 6,598.95 MT was lifted leading to short-lifting of 785.35 MT of food grain.
Wishes galore for SRK on 50th birthday
Calling him a wonderful man and a great inspiration, celebrities like Salman Khan, Hema Malini and Karan Johar wished health and happiness to Shah Rukh Khan on his milestone 50th birthday.Many celebrities shared interesting anecdotes about working with Shah Rukh, while others took to social media to talk about how the actor inspired them to give their best in life.Salman, who has worked with SRK in films like Karan Arjun and Kuch Kuch Hota Hai, said, “I wish him the best in life, I wish him good health, family and success and most amazing life. I would want whole family to be healthy.” Filmmaker Karan Johar wished the actor and credited him for turning him into a director with Kuch Kuch Hota Hai.