Case for reparation gains international force

first_img Related During Harvard appearance, Coates probes ongoing problems in criminal justice system Forty acres and a mule. The order by Union General William T. Sherman in January 1865, just after the Civil War ended, to offer some recompense to newly freed slaves for the harms they had suffered was a radical, tantalizing promise that never came to be.More than 150 years later, the question of whether nations that benefited from the African slave trade between the 16th and 19th centuries bear a responsibility to provide financial reparations for their crimes — as well as the lasting economic, social, and political damage they caused — remains unsettled. Many political and Civil Rights leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr., have tried to gain traction for the idea periodically over the years, without much success.Now may finally be the time. The issue caught fire again in the United States following author Ta-Nehisi Coates’ powerful and provocative 2014 polemic, “The Case for Reparations,” and the flourishing of the Black Lives Matter movement. Earlier this month, the state of Delaware issued a formal apology for slavery and Jim Crow-era laws, while a human rights panel at the United Nations pressed the United States to make reparations, blaming the effects of slavery for the many challenges still facing African-Americans.“Slavery was not just a system of holding people in bondage, it was holding people in bondage for a purpose, and that was to make money, to make money off of their bodies, and that’s the important realization that Americans have to come to,” said Professor Annette Gordon-Reed, speaking on a panel with professors Vincent Brown and Kenneth Mack. Jon Chase/Harvard Staff Photographer“This is not about retribution and anger, it’s about atonement; it’s about the building of bridges across lines of moral justice,” said Sir Hilary Beckles, a distinguished historian, scholar, and activist from Barbados, during a talk Monday at Harvard Law School (HLS), where tensions continue to roil over how best to confront racism and the vestiges of the School’s own historic roots in the slave trade.Beckles is leading an international legal effort now underway in the Caribbean to hold European nations that engaged in that region’s slave trade accountable to the modern-day descendants of those slaves. He chairs a reparations task force of the Caribbean Community Secretariat (CARICOM), the region’s top political and economic body, that has made legal claims through the U.N. against the United Kingdom, France, Spain, Portugal, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. Unlike past payments to survivors of the Holocaust, so far no nations have agreed to make restitution for slavery.“Those who argue against reparatory justice, when you examine the assumptions of those arguments, whether legal, philosophical, social, moral … they converge around a simple point: that the African peoples of the Americas might have a moral and legal right to justice, but they are not deserving of reparatory justice,” Beckles said, “unless they are facing human extinction.” What’s past is prologue Despite their united and longstanding opposition, it’s not as if European countries have never engaged in reparations, he said. After Haiti won its battle for independence in 1804, France demanded it be paid 150 million francs, a still-crippling debt, for its economic losses in exchange for recognition as a sovereign nation. Beckles’ own research found that Britain had made reparations for slavery in Jamaica — to the families of former slaveholders. Last year, he called for Britain’s Prime Minister David Cameron, himself a descendant of slaveholders, to pay billions of pounds to Jamaica for its extraction of the tiny island nation’s natural and human assets.Beckles says the call for reparations is directly related to the Black Lives Matter movement. During 17th and 18th centuries, slaves had monetary value to their owners, so laws were enacted to protect that value. Colonial governments compensated owners if slaves were somehow harmed.“Nothing mattered more than black lives because their economies were built upon black lives,” Beckles said following an introduction by Sven Beckert, the Laird Bell Professor of History at Harvard’s Faculty of Arts and Sciences (FAS) whose acclaimed 2014 book, “Empire of Cotton: A Global History,” traced the commodity’s primacy and how it inextricably bound Africa, Europe, and the New World in the 19th century. “The inventories of their estates, the productive structures of this country and all the Caribbean countries, the accounts, the balance sheets, all showed that outside of land, the most valuable asset on the books of every enterprise was black life, and therefore, black life mattered most.���But with emancipation across the Western Hemisphere, black men and women’s utility in creating wealth for plantation owners suddenly evaporated, and black lives were no longer important.Beckles, as vice chancellor of the University of the West Indies, asked President Obama to join CARICOM’s efforts and establish a U.S. commission to examine the idea of reparations during his visit to Jamaica in April 2015. He recalled the eerie symbolism of the accidental excavation of human bones from a slave graveyard during construction of a new building on campus.“I felt the sense that there was a connection between this history and the present — the fact that our ancestors’ bones were being dug up as the president was coming to our campus,” he said, urging the HLS community to help push the United States to use its global influence to push reparatory justice as a matter of civil rights in the 21st century.“Let us turn this history around. We cannot bury it because when we bury this history … the bones are everywhere. There’s no point in burying the legacy and the memory as well as the bones. Let us bring everything to the surface and find a way forward through all of this.”Vincent Brown, the Charles Warren Professor of American History and Professor of African and African American Studies at FAS; Annette Gordon-Reed, the Charles Warren Professor of American Legal History at FAS; and Kenneth Mack, the Lawrence D. Biele Professor of Law at HLS, considered the practicality and applicability of the Caribbean approach in the United States.“Even if we zero in on the state, I fear that the demand for reparations presumes and depends upon states committed to distributive justice, a commitment most states haven’t borne since the rise of neoliberal governance, which, many would argue, is essentially predatory itself,” said Brown.Gordon-Reed, who is also the Carol Pforzheimer Professor at the Radcliffe Institute and professor of law in the faculty of law, noted the differences in the way Europeans and Americans view and understand slavery. One important obstacle that must be overcome before the idea of reparations will go anywhere, she said, “is to make people understand that slavery was not just a system of holding people in bondage, it was holding people in bondage for a purpose, and that was to make money, to make money off of their bodies, and that’s the important realization that Americans have to come to.”Rather than taking on the difficult task of trying to identify specific harms and the descendants of those who lived hundreds of years ago, it would be more practical to make whole those still alive who have endured slavery’s effects, such as disenfranchisement or housing discrimination, and then work back into history, she said.“We can think about what we should do if we understand that all of us benefit from the proceeds of slavery every day if we’re associated with this institution,” Mack said in response to repeated questions from HLS students about how to confront the School’s racist history and prompt change on campus.Mack and Gordon-Reed noted the many real-world opportunities in Boston and across the United States that exist right now for HLS students to facilitate getting reparations for black people through the legal system.“All of us derive a present-day benefit from the oppression, the degradation of human beings. And what should we do as an institution to make reparations for that” is what should be on everyone’s mind in thinking broadly about the concept of reparations, said Mack.last_img read more

Notre Dame welcomes retirees back to the classroom

first_imgAt the beginning of the school year, some Notre Dame students might have noticed something a little different about some of the people in their classes. In addition to the usual demographic of 18- to 22-year-old college students, sprinkled in classes throughout campus for the first time was also a group of 15 retirees, the first class of fellows in Notre Dame’s Inspired Leadership Initiative (ILI).The ILI is a new program at Notre Dame this year that allows retirees to come to Notre Dame for a year, take classes and discern what they want to do in their retirement. It is based on similar programs at Harvard and Stanford.In 2016, Tom Schreier, founding director of ILI, was among the many retirees who had ended their careers, and he was wondering what to do next in his life.“I finished up what I call my ‘traditional career.’ I was leading a very large financial services firm based in Chicago,” he said. “We sold that firm. I was really trying to decide, ‘What’s next for me?’ I thought, ‘I think I want to do something different from what I have done, but I want to do something that leverages the kind of skills and knowledge and relationships that I have.’”Schreier, who attended Notre Dame for his undergraduate studies and Harvard for graduate school, discovered an article about Harvard’s program for retirees: the Advanced Leadership Initiative.“I thought that to be very interesting,” he said. “I thought it to be a very intriguing, smart way to make a transition as opposed to just meeting with friends and colleagues … and saying, ‘What kinds of things have you done?’ To do it in a structured, thoughtful way.”Ultimately, Schreier applied to both the Harvard and Stanford programs for retirees. In the fall of 2016, as he was considering the two programs, he and his wife dropped their youngest child off for her first year at Notre Dame.“I was approached by people I know who are in the University leadership and they asked, ‘What are you going to do now?’” he said. “I was telling them I was trying to decide between the two programs and they said, ‘Would you ever consider catalyzing a program like this at the University of Notre Dame?’ They said the senior leadership of the University was very interested in doing it and believed very strongly that Notre Dame could create a truly distinctive offering in this space.”Schreier ultimately decided to help establish such a program at Notre Dame. Two years later, the first class of ILI fellows arrived at the University.For ILI co-founding director Chris Stevens, the program is a glimpse into a future where people are living much longer — perhaps living for decades after they retire.“For people who have had an accomplished life — maybe a career in business, or law, or medicine, or non-profit — and they’ve done it for 30 years or so and they want to pivot and do something different, there [was] no place for them to go until Harvard started [its] program about 10 years ago and then Stanford started their version of the program about five years ago,” Stevens said. “We feel like we can do it here at Notre Dame. It really is filling an unmet need. The retirement model is totally outdated. People who are 55 to 60 have maybe another 20, 25 years of life left to them.”Stevens said the fellows audit between two and four Notre Dame classes of their choosing in a given semester. In addition to those courses, they meet as a group once a week to take a great books class. The group usually has a luncheon with a guest speaker on Thursdays. In February, the group will travel to Notre Dame’s Rome Global Gateway. In May, they will make a trip to Notre Dame’s global gateway at Tantur Ecumenical Institute in Jerusalem. Fellows’ spouses are invited as well, and some of them are taking a class or two, Stevens said. Applications for the fall of 2019 open in October.One of the focuses of Notre Dame’s iteration of the program, Stevens said, is discernment and working for the public good.“Many people in this stage of life want to be a greater force for good,” he said. “They’ve been crushing it on Wall Street or working 60 hours a week in medicine, or whatever. Sometimes they want to stop for a second and really discern what they want to do for the rest of their life to be a greater force for good.”Stevens said he hopes the program is a positive experience for Notre Dame students, faculty and fellows alike.“We think there are tremendous mentor opportunities, for both students and for faculty. Some students, as the program evolves, may adopt a fellow,” he said. “And perhaps that fellow will come to a hall once a week, or something like that, and be available to mentor and talk. We think there’s all kinds of engagement opportunities.”Tuck Hopkins of Fort Wayne, Ind., a retired labor lawyer and 1974 graduate of the University, said he has loved his time in ILI so far.“The first three weeks have been a breath of fresh air, because instead of waking up and having to get things done — because that’s your job — I wake up now and I’m looking forward to just learning,” Hopkins said. “Already I’m hoping that it doesn’t end.”Hopkins — who is taking a history class about colonial America, an art class about Renaissance art and an economics class about the Federal Reserve in addition to the great books course — said students and professors have been very welcoming.“The professors have been so supportive,” he said. “For students, looking at someone who’s 66 years old sitting next to you, I wonder what you’re thinking. The students have been outstanding.”An important part of ILI is the total cohort. Hopkins said he has particularly enjoyed getting to know other fellows. The inaugural group, who Stevens referred to as “co-creating fellows” due to their role in pioneering the program, come from multiple countries and a wide variety of careers.“The other fellows are fantastic. We’re meeting a couple times a week and getting to know each other,” Hopkins said. “These people are just great people.”Hopkins noted that despite their diverse backgrounds, the fellows all possess good leadership abilities and, as a result, the group is getting along very well with one another.“I think across the cohort, I don’t think there’s anyone who has been successful in the same field. So we’re looking at all sorts of lives, all sorts of careers,” he said. “The thing they have in common is that everyone was a leader. Everyone has that desire to succeed, to be successful. The other thing I’ve seen in them is they have the leadership skills that you would want in terms of getting along. … It’s very obvious the reason that they’re successful is that they show their employees the way. They lead by example. As a result of that, we are getting along unbelievably well. We’re almost a protective group now. It’s almost funny. Friendships were almost immediate. Everybody wants everybody else to be successful.”Though Hopkins is not sure exactly what he wants to do once he has completed ILI, he said his participation in the program will definitely shape his life in the future.“Three weeks in, right now I’m just having the time of my life and enjoying every day,” he said. “At the end of it, I think I’m going to be a better person for it.”Tags: Inspired Leadership Initiative, later life education, retirementlast_img read more

Benefit of Low Grain Supply

first_imgLow grain supplies have buyers scrambling to make sure they’ll have enough for theirneeds. A marketing expert said farmers should be scrambling, too, to lock in prices drivenup by the shortage. “Grain stocks in the United States and globally are at very low levels,” saidGeorge Shumaker, an economist with the University of Georgia Extension Service.”You’d have to go back to the end of World War II to find a time when global grainstocks were as low as they are right now,” Shumaker said.Many experts like to see a buffer of about 75 days’ worth of use. But stocks havedropped to about 30 days’ worldwide use.Because of the shortage, markets have placed a premium on all grain prices.”This premium should encourage growers to plant more acres to meet the growingneed for food and feed grains,” Shumaker said.The high-price grains include corn, wheat and soybeans used for human food or to feedlivestock for later human consumption. Current prices for wheat and corn, the feed grains, are higher than for soybeans, anoilseed. That’s because corn and wheat are in scarcer supply than oilseeds.Higher prices in all of these grains have caused an “auction for acreage,”Shumaker said. Buyers try to make sure they will be able to buy enough grain by gettingfarmers to plant more of the grain with the shortest supply.”Bidding prices higher encourages farmers to plant more of that commodity,”he said.Georgia grain growers can take advantage of that. Shumaker said using cash contracts,hedging futures markets and buying options are all good ways to manage marketing risk.”We’re going to have some excellent forward-pricing opportunities in early1996,” he said.As high as prices are, the market is more volatile, too. Weather forecasts play a keypart in setting market prices.The low supply makes the present crop more precious than it would be otherwise. Buyerskeep a close eye on current crop conditions and adjust prices up or down depending on howweather could affect the crop. Farmers can’t affect these price fluctuations, but they can take advantage of them asthey happen. Shumaker said this is an excellent time to learn about managing market risk– while prices are high.”The ‘Freedom to Farm’ bill will force farmers to learn more about riskmanagement,” he said. “We’re fortunate that prices are so high now when farmersare learning.”The new farm bill will also affect acreage. Shumaker expects an increase in corn andsoybean acreage over 1995. This is partly due to farmers’ planting fewer peanuts, but alsobecause of higher grain prices.Grain buyers and others look to the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s ProspectivePlantings Report on March 31 to find out what farmers intend to plant this year.”These intentions could affect current prices for all grains,” Shumaker said.”So producers need to act quickly when they see a profitable opportunity.”last_img read more

CVPS prices public offering

first_imgCVPS prices public offeringRUTLAND, Vermont Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (NYSE:CV) announced November 17, 2008, that it priced a public offering of 1,190,000 newly issued shares of its common stock at a public offering price of $19.00. Central Vermont expects to grant the underwriters of the offering a 30-day option to purchase up to 119,000 additional shares of Central Vermont common stock solely to cover over-allotments, if any. Central Vermont intends to use the net proceeds of the offering for general corporate purposes, including the repayment of debt, capital expenditures, investments in Vermont Transco LLC and working capital requirements.Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated is acting as sole bookrunner, and KeyBanc Capital Markets Inc. is acting as co-manager for this offering. You may obtain a copy of the preliminary prospectus supplement and final prospectus supplement, when available, from Morgan Stanley & Co. Incorporated, 180 Varick Street 2/F, New York, NY 10014, [email protected](link sends e-mail), or toll-free at 1-866-718-1649.This press release shall not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy, nor shall there be any sale of, these securities in any jurisdiction in which such offer, solicitation or sale would be unlawful prior to registration or qualification under the securities laws of such jurisdiction. The offering may be made only by means of a prospectus and related prospectus supplement.last_img read more

Dear Most Parents: You Are Boring.

first_imgSign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York … well, at least compared to the creatively cool inventors of Dinovember!Admittedly, I am a couple of days late, as this has been floating around for a couple of days (I mean, even Jaime Franchi has probably seen it by now…) but that’s OK because your nana probably doesn’t peruse Buzzfeed too much and when she sees this she will squeal in elderly delight.Of course, my first choice was to share the video from Toronto mayor Rob Ford’s latest press conference…But nana wouldn’t have approved.So, parents, click these words, and go read about these amazing people and see what they’ve done to make me declare all you other parents, boring.And parents, I’m sorry for making you feel inadequate. I’m sure your children love you just as much as theirs do.Then again, probably not. Because dinosaurs!last_img read more

Without branches, banks and credit unions say they can’t survive

first_img ShareShareSharePrintMailGooglePinterestDiggRedditStumbleuponDeliciousBufferTumblr continue reading » Branches aren’t just important to banks and credit unions. They’re viewed as essential to institutional existence by a significant majority in the industry.Seven out of ten bank and credit union executives consider branches to be so important that their institution’s very survival depends on them. Considering the rapid migration of everyday banking transactions to digital channels and the corresponding sharp falloff in branch traffic, that is a startling conclusion. Why do so many retail banking executives feel this way? Are they clinging desperately to tradition or do sound reasons support their belief in the much-debated branch?Many of the statistics from “The World Branch Report 2019” address those questions. The 62-page report, a collaboration between Thynk Digital and The Financial Brand, is based on surveys of nearly 500 executives from banks and credit unions worldwide and about 9,400 consumer users of financial institutions worldwide.last_img read more

S. Korea adds 114 virus cases, warns on Seoul cluster

first_imgSouth Korea reported fewer than 120 new coronavirus cases on Thursday, but authorities warned that a new cluster in Seoul could see the infection spread in the capital.Around 100 people linked to a call centre in the city have tested positive for the virus in recent days. “This could lead to a ‘super spread’ in the metropolitan area, where half of the entire population are concentrated,” Prime Minister Chung Sye-kyun told a meeting on Thursday. So far, nearly 90 percent of South Korea’s cases have been in the southern city of Daegu and the neighbouring North Gyeongsang province.The South was the first country to report significant coronavirus numbers outside China, where the disease first emerged, and remains one of the world’s worst-affected countries despite being overtaken by both Italy and Iran in declared cases.A total of 114 infections were confirmed Wednesday, the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) said, taking the South’s total to 7,869.Six more people died, it added, with the toll rising to 66.Each morning the South announces how many cases were diagnosed the previous day, and Wednesday’s figure is well below the 500-600 increases the country was confirming in early March.More than 60 percent of the country’s infections are linked to the Shincheonji Church of Jesus, a religious sect often condemned as a cult, one of whose members attended at least four services in Daegu before being diagnosed.Scores of events — from K-pop concerts to sports matches — have been cancelled or postponed over the contagion, with school and kindergarten breaks extended by three weeks nationwide.Topics :last_img read more

WIND to Provide Cable Storage for German Offshore Wind Pair

first_imgWIND Cable Services B.V. has won a long-term cable storage contract by EnBW for the Hohe See and Albatros offshore wind farms in Germany.Under the agreement, the Netherlands-based company will provide storage of the spare inter-array cable for the two projects.Boskalis is in charge of the supply, installation, burial, termination and testing of seventy-nine 33kV inter-array cables on the Hohe See wind farm.  The company is also responsible for the inter-array works on Albatros, as well as for inter-connecting the two projects.The 497MW EnBW Hohe See and the 112MW Albatros offshore wind farms will comprise a total of 87 Siemens Gamesa SWT-7.0-154 turbines.EnBW Hohe See is located 95km north of Borkum and 100km northwest of Helgoland, while Albatros is being constructed in the immediate vicinity.The two wind farms are expected to be put into operation by the end of the year.last_img read more

Hetmyer; bowlers put GAW into semi’s

first_imgShimron Hetmyer followed another good Guyana Amazon Warriors bowling performance with an unbeaten half-century to take the perennial finalists to the Hero Caribbean Premier League (CPL) knockout stages. Bar an early burst from Rakheem Cornwall, the St Lucia Zouks never got going with the bat as the Amazon Warriors mixed seam and spin to good effect, and Hetmyer made the total and the ground look far too small.Cornwall smashed sixes off both Chris Green and Kevin Sinclair, but Andre Fletcher fell early, leading-edging Sinclair to short third man. Naveen-ul-Haq started with a wicket-maiden, Leniko Boucher pulling straight to captain Green at mid-on. Imran Tahir also started with a maiden, leaving the Zouks 15/2 after four overs.Cornwall hit two fours off Naveen, driving him over his head then pulling him, but when the opener mistimed a Romario Shepherd cutter Naveen pulled off an excellent catch diving forward. Cornwall had hit 20 in four shots, but the Zouks only scored off six other deliveries to end the Powerplay at 27/3. Naveen ul Haq (3L) and Romario Shepherd (2L) of Guyana Amazon Warriors celebrate the dismissal of Leniko Boucher (L) of St Lucia Zouks during the Hero Caribbean Premier League match 24 between St Lucia Zouks and Guyana Amazon Warriors at Brian Lara Cricket Academy onGreen raced through an over for just two, and Tahir was unlucky not to get a wicket in an over that yielded only four. Najibullah Zadran attempted to reverse sweep Green to little effect, and Sinclair was unlucky a Najibullah top-edge fell safely. Najibullah at last middled one, pulling Sinclair hard for a Hero Maximum, and at halfway the Zouks were 47/3.Najibullah and Kavem Hodge managed to hustle eight off Green’s last over, but Hodge soon got stuck which put pressure on Najibullah, who tried to attack Tahir but under-edged a googly to keeper Nicholas Pooran. Keemo Paul bookended his first over with wickets, starting with Hodge under-edging through to Pooran and ending with Zouks captain Daren Sammy falling LBW for another low score. At 59/6 off 13, the Zouks were in need of a rescue mission.Mohammad Nabi and Javelle Glen survived Tahir’s last over, Paul’s second over like his first went for just two, and while Nabi clubbed Shepherd for four through cover that was the first boundary in 34 balls. Entering the last four overs, the Zouks were 72/6.Nabi steered Naveen past point for four, but Naveen foxed him with a pair of slower balls to put the onus on Nabi to attack. Nabi mistimed his drive and holed out to Sinclair at deep cover. Glenn got his first boundaries, both edged past short third man off Paul, as the Zouks finally managed a double-figure over to reach 89/7 off 18.Naveen dropped short and was pulled for four to go for 11 off the last over of an otherwise excellent spell, and Glenn smoked a cover drive in the last over. But Paul recovered well to ensure that was the only boundary off the 20th, and the Zouks total felt some way under par.Scott Kuggeleijn sprayed wides both sides of the wicket in a nine-ball first over that somehow only went for five. The Amazon Warriors’ intention to attack the Powerplay was clear, as Chandrapaul Hemraj started Nabi’s first over by smashing a Hero Maximum and King closed it by square driving for four.Brandon King was bowled attempting a ramp over fine leg, but the aggression continued with Hetmyer slashing for four. Hemraj ruined a potential Nabi maiden with a Hero Maximum over long-off, and Hetmyer dismissed a Kuggeleijn long-hop through point for four. Cornwall closed the Powerplay tidily, but after six overs the Warriors were comfortable at 38/1.Hemraj clipped Kesrick Williams fine for four to take the required run rate below five an over. Hetmyer seized on Cornwall’s first poor ball, hammering a Hero Maximum over midwicket, and the Amazon Warriors ticked along to 55/1 off eight overs but soon after Hemraj was bowled by Nabi off both pads.Hetmyer attacked Chemar Holder mercilessly, pulling his first two balls for Hero Maximums and following up with three fours in a row – a majestic cover drive on the up, a rasping square cut and a punch over mid-off – to rocket the Warriors to 82/2 and himself to 46 after 10 overs. A 24 run over had reduced an already simple chase to a stroll.Nabi finished his spell tidily, but while Sammy showed faith in Holder, Pooran continued where Hetmyer had left off with a glorious check-driven four. Hetmyer followed suit to bring up a third fifty of Hero CPL 2020 off just 33 balls, and after 12 overs the Amazon Warriors were 94/2 and needed just 16 to win.Pooran walloped Glen through midwicket for four but fell next ball reverse-slapping to cover where Boucher took a good low catch. The winning moment was a bye, but the job had been done by the bowlers and Hetymer, and with three straight wins the Amazon Warriors look to be gathering steam.The Zouks had already qualified for the semis, but the top order will need to step up if they are to win Hero CPL for the first time. Such was the margin of victory that the Amazon Warriors jumped into second place, and who knows how important that could be come the semi-finals.last_img read more